Open Access Minireview Article

Beneficial Components of Colostrum for Cancer Patients: A Mini-review Focused on Oxidative Aspects and Properties of Colostrinin

Aline do Carmo França-Botelho

Asian Oncology Research Journal, Page 1-6

The beneficial effect of maternal colostrum and milk on the newborn as well as on the nursing mother is well known. However, many other potentially preventive and therapeutic aspects associated with the use of components of these secretions are still partially known and have sparked some research, including in the context of cancer. A narrative mini-review to present potential beneficial effects of colostrum components for cancer patients, especially focusing on oxidative aspects and potentialities of colostrinin.

Open Access Original Research Article

Antineoplastic Activities of Grape Seed Proanthocyanidin Extract against Ehrlich Solid Tumor Bearing Mice Induced Alterations in AFP, CEA, TNF-α and DNA Damage

Massoud Ahmed, Tousson Ehab, Said Noor Eldin Ahmed, Elwan M. Mona, Hameed M. Haneen

Asian Oncology Research Journal, Page 1-12

Background and Objective: Cancer is initiated due to abnormalities in the DNA of the affected cells leading to an extra mass of tissue termed a tumor. Breast cancer is the most public cancer amongst women world-wide. The present work is designed to investigate the ameliorating potential effects of grape seed proanthocyanidin extract (GSPE) in inhibition of Ehrlich cells growth and tumor development as a model for breast cancer. Also; the present work is designed to investigate the effect of GSPE on the changes in the levels of AFP, CEA, TNF-α and hematological alterations, and DNA damage examination on Ehrilch solid tumor (EST) bearing mice.

Materials and Methods: A total of 40 female mice were evenly distributed amongst four groups (G1, control group; G2, GSPE group; G3, EST group; IV, EST+GSPE group).

Results: Results revealed increased incidences of tumor growth in the untreated EST group, along with elevated levels of serum AFP, CEA, TNF-α, WBCs, platelets and DNA damage and an associated reduction in RBCs and Hb%. Treatment of EST with GSPE (EST+GSPE) modulates and improved these changes in CBC, tumor markers and DNA damage as compared to mice bearing EST.

Conclusion: This finding calls for more investigation on the benefits of grape seed proanthocyanidin extract (GSPE) as antineoplastic activity on other tumors as Ehrlich ascites carcinoma or cancer.

Open Access Original Research Article

Ameliorative Effects of Spirulina and Chamomile Aqueous Extract against Mice Bearing Ehrlich Solid Tumor Induced Apoptosis

Afaf El-Atrsh, Ehab Tousson, Eman E. Elnahas, Ahmed Massoud, Marwan Al-Zubaidi

Asian Oncology Research Journal, Page 1-17

Aims: Cancer is caused by an imbalance in the rate of proliferation and apoptosis and the positive effect of anticancer therapy is taken into consideration when its ability to initiate apoptosis in cancer cells. In vivo; several experimental models established in experimental animals besides the Ehrlich solid tumor (EST), derived from the mouse breast adenocarcinoma. This study aims to determine the curative role of spirulina or/ and chamomile to acting effectively in                     inhibition of Ehrlich cells growth and tumor development, in addition to the therapeutic activity of spirulina and chamomile aqueous extract on Ehrlich tumor in the solid forms induced apoptosis in solid tumor.

Study Design:  A total of 80 mice were equally divided into eight groups (Group 1, Control group; Group 2, spirulina group; Group 3, Chamomile group; Group 4, spirulina and chamomile group; Group 5, Ehrlish solid tumor group; Group 6: Mice Ehrlish solid tumor treated orally with spirulina; Group 7, Mice Ehrlish solid tumor treated orally with chamomile; Group 8, Mice Ehrlish solid tumor treated orally with both spirulina and chamomile for 2 weeks).

Results: In the current study; a significant decrease in tumour volume, an decrease in apoptotic P53, Bax and pro apoptotic Caspase 3 expressions and increased in Bcl2 expressions was detected after the treatment of EST with extract of chamomile and spirulina together and spirulina extract only as compared with the tumour volume of EST group. In conclusion, the present study demonstrated that the combination of spirulina and chamomile has a better effect than each of spirulina or chamomile alone against Ehrlich solid tumor in mice.

Conclusion: Ehrlich solid tumor induced apoptosis by increased P53, Bax, Caspase 3 and decrease Bcl2; treatment of Ehrlich solid tumor with combination of spirulina and chamomile improved these alterations in apoptosis markers.

Open Access Original Research Article

Clinical Significance of Mir-221 in Colorectal Cancer

Amal F. Gharib, Abdel Rhman Nasser Alghamdi, Mosfer Nasser Alghamdi, Ahmed El Askary, Wael H. Elsawy

Asian Oncology Research Journal, Page 1-9

Aim: MicroRNA-221 plays an important role in a number of human malignancies. The present study was conducted to shed light on the role of mir-221in colorectal cancer as regards the initiation of malignant process and progression.

Methods: Real-time reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction was used to determine the levels of mir-221 in 92 patients with colorectal cancer and in their adjacent non-cancerous tissues and to explore the relation between mir-221 level and clinical and pathological features of the disease.

Results: Mir-221 was up-regulated in 90.2% (83/92) of colorectal cancer tissue samples compared with their adjacent non-cancerous tissue samples. The high expression of mir-221 was significantly correlated to tumor size and infiltration, clinical stage and lymph node metastasis. Univariate and multivariate analyses showed that over expression of mir-221 was an unfavorable prognostic indicator for overall survival in colorectal cancer patients.

Conclusion: Our findings suggest mir-221 may be used as a prognostic marker in CRC and it needs more studies to be used as a potential diagnostic marker and as a molecular target for targeted cancer therapy. 

Open Access Original Research Article

Effectiveness of Intervention on Awareness and Knowledge of Breast Self-Examination among the Potentially at Risk Population for Breast Cancer

Abdul Nazer Ali, Foong Ji Yuan, Chuah Hui Ying, Nazer Zulfikar Ahmed

Asian Oncology Research Journal, Page 1-13

Aims: The aim of this study was to estimate the awareness and knowledge of breast cancer and breast self-examination and to estimate the effectiveness of intervention on awareness and knowledge of breast cancer (BC) and breast self-examination (BSE) among the potentially, at risk population for breast cancer.

Study Design:  Pre-post study design.

Place and Duration of Study: Private University students of faculty of pharmacy, AIMST University, Kedah state, Malaysia, between September, 2018 and May, 2019.

Methodology: A pre-validated questionnaire containing socio-demographic details along with awareness and knowledge based items regarding breast cancer (BC) and breast self-examination (BSE) was distributed in class room setting after obtaining informed consent from study participants. A well-constructed and validated educational intervention tool (pamphlet) was distributed to all participants after baseline study. The original Blooms cut-off grades were used to categorize the scores. Descriptive statistics for categorical variables; numerical data as median (IQR); McNemar’s test for pre- and post-test differences was computed, P < .05 was considered significant.

Results: The overall response rate of the study population was around 92% (183/200). The awareness score regarding breast cancer was moderate (64%) at baseline. The most identified risk factors was smoking (56%) and symptoms was presence of lumps (61%). Only 65% and 31% were aware that, breast cancer is most common among women and their age-specific incidence rates. About 64% knew it could lead to death and 69% thought early detection improves survival rates. Upon intervention, there was a significant increase (64%→99%, p <.001) in awareness scores and (51%→95%, P <.001) in knowledge scores. At baseline, the knowledge score was poor (51%), only 43% had any knowledge about breast cancer and only 32% were ever taught of how to perform BSE. About 33% knew how often the BSE should be performed and 40% knew the best time for performing BSE. Hardly 24% ever practised BSE though 72% accepted performing BSE is good. However, only 38%, 28% and 22% knew the need of mirror, part of hand and direction of hand movement for performing BSE. The average awareness and knowledge scores showed statistically significant (P < .05) differences between baseline and post intervention studies.

Conclusion: This study results confirm that the study population had a fair awareness and poor knowledge at baseline. Intervention tool such as pamphlet providing clear, precise and required information about breast cancer, its signs, symptoms, risk factors, screening and steps for performing BSE are important to reduce breast cancer mortality. A nation wide reach-out with barrier-specific counseling, community-based interventions and nationwide population driven breast cancer screening are recommended for rural and urban area female population.

Open Access Original Research Article

Nutritional Status, Anthropometric and Biochemical Profile of Down Syndrome Children with Cancer at King Abdullah Medical City Hospital in Makkah

Naser A. ElSawy

Asian Oncology Research Journal, Page 1-10

Background: Down syndrome children with cancer are susceptible to nutritional depletion due to the combined effects of the malignant disease and its treatment. The assessment of the nutritional status of pediatric oncology patients on admission to hospital is crucial, as nutritional status is known to influence treatment and clinical outcomes.

Objectives: This study aimed at assessing the nutritional status, life style, anthropometric and biochemical profile of children with cancer. The study was carried out at the at oncology department at King Abdullah medical city hospital in Makkah on 100 children having cancer and receiving treatment compared with non-cancer controls using a descriptive design, by using anthropometric parameters and prealbumine level.

Materials and Methods: A descriptive study on 100 Down syndrome children under 15 years with or without cancer was conducted to determine their nutritional status. The children comprised 50 patients with cancer (cases) and 50 controls seen at Down syndrome children’s outpatient clinic with minor illnesses. An interview questionnaire and a physical assessment sheet collected data. Which included three parts; the first one covered the clinical examination; the second part was for anthropometric measurement and the third part was for laboratory investigations.

Results: Indicated that leukemia and lymphoma are the commonest cancers and chemotherapy is the therapy mostly used. Children suffer many gastrointestinal symptoms as anorexia, nausea and vomiting. The majority have abnormal anthropometric measurements, hemoglobin and serum prealbumin levels. It can be concluded that the majority of the children were suffering from anemia and malnutrition.

Conclusion: The prevalence of malnutrition in Down syndrome children with cancer is high. Arm anthropometry in conjunction with prealbumine accurately characterizing the nutritional status. Down syndrome children with cancer were significantly more malnourished than those without cancer and will require nutritional support to reduce the morbidity and mortality arising from such illness.

Open Access Original Research Article

Uncommon Histological Variants of Cervical Cancer – A Single Center Experience

Swati Mittal, Joydeep Ghosh, Anik Ghosh

Asian Oncology Research Journal, Page 1-8

Aim: To study the clinical and demographic characteristics of cancers of uterine cervix with histology other than SCC and AC at a tertiary referral hospital in eastern India.

Study Design: Retrospective study.

Place and Duration of Study: Tata Medical Center, Kolkata, India from May 2011 to July 2018.

Methodology: A retrospective review of cases of cervical cancer was done using prospectively collected data from electronic medical records from May 2011 to July 2018. Clinical and demographic characteristics of the cases were noted.

Results: A total of 644 cases of cervical cancer were treated in the study period. 14 cases of uncommon histological types were recorded (NECC – 6, Clear Cell Carcinoma – 1, Mucinous Adenocarcinoma – 3, Serous Carcinoma – 1, Melanoma – 1, Carcinosarcoma – 1 and Adenoma Malignum – 1).  The median recurrence free survival for non-metastatic disease population was 24 months and the median 3 year overall survival for non-metastatic disease population 54%. 

Conclusion: The prognosis of the uncommon histological types remains poor. However, further prospective studies are required to study the natural history, treatment and prognosis of these tumors.

Open Access Review Article

Use of DNA Methylation in Cancer Therapy

Ayoola Abimbola, Christian Bach

Asian Oncology Research Journal, Page 1-12

The aim of this paper is the review the factors that determine cancer progression which would help in the treatment and diagnosis of the disease. Cancer is a leading life-threatening disease and despite the recent technological advancement, there is still a poor survival rate in cancer patients because of inadequate diagnosis and poor prognosis of cancer.

Open Access Review Article

Factors Affecting Lung Cancer Survival: A Literature Review

Naeima Houssein

Asian Oncology Research Journal, Page 1-9

Lung cancer is a disease which invades the lung tissue by formation of uncontrolled cell growth, and this may also affect the tissues near the lung. There are a wide range of prognostic factors which determine survival duration of lung cancer patients. Among the most important factors are patient demographics, disease factors and health care related factors. Lung cancer remains one of the leading causes of the overall cancer burden worldwide. The aim of this review is to investigate the existing knowledge and relevant literature on prognostic factors in lung cancer survival. Literature search was carried on OVID databases (1990-2011) that include Ovid MEDLINE in process and EMBASE. In Ovid, truncations were used. Only papers published in English were included. A total of 315 were found and refined, only 43 papers were reviewed. In conclusion, lung cancer survival is influenced by a number of factors that interact to determine the prognosis of patients. Lung cancer survival is not dependent on a single factor of these prognostics, but is affected by the interaction between them.

Open Access Review Article

Major Candidate Genes Associated with Risk of Hereditary and Sporadic Prostate Cancer

Berjas Abumsimir, Moulay Mustapha Ennaji

Asian Oncology Research Journal, Page 1-13

Prostate cancer risk factors gain more awareness in the world nowadays, due to the increasing incidents, which vary among different ethnic groups. Researches about genetic risk factors might help for more understanding of the initiation and development of prostate cancer and estimating risk values among individuals, and develop multi-perspective therapy approaches. Many efforts were achieved to study and evaluate high-risk variants associated with prostate tumors; through different populations. This evaluation depended on the high frequencies of these variants and the role of such variants in cell cycle and DNA repairing system. In this review, we highlighted the major candidate genes and molecular events of prostate cancer: BRCA, CHEK2, HOXB13, ELAC2, SPOP, PTEN, TMPRSS2-ERG Fusion and other less effective variants, in an attempt to explore the molecular seriousness and relative risk of suspected variants associated with hereditary and sporadic prostate cancer. The definition of particular groups of genes that lead prostate cancer prognosis is a difficult task, since the genetic and proteomic studies detected numerous susceptibility alleles complicated with risk of prostate tumors. The estimation of high-risk variants may be a key issue regarding prostate cancer diagnosis and therapy.