Open Access Case Study

Brain Metastasis in a Case of Osteosarcoma

Clevio Desouza, Diksha Choudhary, Maulik Langaliya

Asian Oncology Research Journal, Volume 5, Issue 3, Page 48-52

Introduction: Sarcomas are responsible for about 3% of brain metastases and brain metastases are found in 1-8% of patients of sarcoma patients. One of the most prevalent malignant bone tumors in adolescents and children is osteosarcoma, which only rarely spreads to the central nervous system. We report here a rare case of an 8-year-old boy with brain metastasis from osteosarcoma of the foot.

Case Report: An 8-year-old male presented with osteosarcoma of the foot and brain because of metastasis from the primary tumor. After diagnosis by CT scan and PET scan, the patient underwent occipital- parietal craniotomy with gross total excision of the skull along with pirogoff’s amputation for the foot. On histopathological examination, the diagnosis of osteosarcoma was confirmed and patient was started on chemotherapy.

Conclusion: Brain metastasis with osteosarcoma is a rare condition. However, aggressive craniotomy and excision of the primary tumor with timely chemotherapy can result in long term survival of patient. However, a proper protocol must be followed to achieve this.

Open Access Original Research Article

A Comparative Study between Two Different Fractionation of High Dose Rate Brachytherapy in Locally Advanced Carcinoma of Uterine Cervix after Pelvic Concurrent Chemoradiotherapy

Jahan Israt, Bari Abdul, Alam Sarwar, Mostafa Md. Niaz

Asian Oncology Research Journal, Volume 5, Issue 3, Page 8-15

Background: Uterine cervical cancer is the commonest form of gynecologic malignancy in Bangladesh. In locally advanced cases radiotherapy with a combination of external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) with concurrent chemotherapy and intracavitary brachytherapy (ICRT) is the mainstay of treatment. The aim of this study is to compare the treatment outcome and acute complications following treatment with 9 Gy (gray) in two fractions of ICRT with EBRT.

Methodology: A prospective study was carried out in the Department of Oncology, Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University, Department of Radiation Oncology, National Institute of Cancer Research and Hospital, Dhaka during the period of 2017 to 2018.

Results: The mean age of patient at diagnosis was 50 years. During follow up at 6 month after completion of treatment, complete remission was 90% and 86% respectively for arm A and arm B. The overall complete response was 88%. The common toxicities associated with treatment were bladder and rectal toxicities, skin reaction and hematologic complications which were managed conservatively. During follow up after 6 months, rectal and bladder toxicities were similar in both arms.

Conclusion: This study showed that a total dose  of 18 Gy ICRT in two fractions of 9 Gy over 2 weeks  is equally effective in short term local control with acceptable toxicities in comparison with a total dose of 21 Gy in three fractions of 7 Gy ICRT.

Open Access Original Research Article

Ehrlich Solid Tumor Induced Injury and Toxicity in Liver and Kidney in Female Mice

Maha Elkholy, Afaf El-Atrash, Ehab Tousson

Asian Oncology Research Journal, Volume 5, Issue 3, Page 41-47

Background and Objective: Cancer can develop in any organ at any time; it is a cellular malignancy that causes a breakdown in normal cell-cycle regulation, leading to unchecked proliferation and a lack of differentiation. It is the main factor in human mortality. The therapeutic efficacy of currently available drugs is minimal, and they do not prevent the growth of cancer. Current work aimed to study the effect of Ehrlich solid tumor (EST) on liver and kidney in female mice.

Materials and Methods: Twenty mice were randomly and equally divided into two groups and each group consists of 10 mice; 1st group is control group in which mice did not receive any treatment and 2nd group is EST group, including mice, each mouse were injected subcutaneously with 2.5-3×106 EAC cells.

Results: Current results revealed that; EST induced significant increase in the levels of serum urea, creatinine, potassium, chloride, aspartate transaminase (AST) and alanine transaminase (ALT) activities and alkaline phosphatase (ALP), kidney and liver injuries and cconversely, a significant decrease in sodium, calcium as associated to control.

Conclusion: Current results indicated that EST induced damage and toxicity in liver and kidney.

Open Access Original Research Article

Craniospinal Irradiation Using Three-Dimensional Conformal Radiotherapy with Two Different Planning Techniques: A Comparative Analysis in Supine and Prone Positions

Shashi Bhushan Sharma, Pranjal Goswami, Shachindra Goswami, Faridha Jane Momin, Jyotiman Nath, Papu Das, Kamala Chetia, Bhargab Sarma, Partha Pratim Medhi

Asian Oncology Research Journal, Volume 5, Issue 3, Page 53-62

Objectives: Craniospinal Irradiation (CSI) requires radiotherapy delivery to the entire neuraxis. It is accomplished by using multiple overlapping beams covering the large target volume, which are then matched to one another using collimation, couch rotation or beam modifications. Although modern radiotherapy techniques like Intensity Modulated Radiotherapy (IMRT) and Proton Beam Therapy (PBT) offer significant advantages in delivering CSI, yet 3-Dimensional Conformal Radiotherapy (3DCRT) remains the primarily used technique- more so in resource constrained settings.

Materials and Methods: The CT simulation datasets of six patients (3 supine and 3 prone positions) were used for planning two different techniques for CSI: A) Two isocenter plan with half beam block and no collimator rotation (2iso-HB-WOC) and B) Three isocenter plan with half beam block and collimator rotation (3iso-HB-WC). Plans were compared using Dose Volume Histogram (DVH) parameters for Planning Target Volume (PTV) and Organs at Risk (OARs).

Results: Considering dosimetric parameters, the 2iso-HB-WOC technique was found to be equivalent to 3iso-HB-WC technique in terms of PTV coverage and OAR doses. However, on evaluating treatment positions, the volume of hotspots (V107%) was significantly lesser [Mean: 141.83cc vs 243.50cc, p=0.02] with improved minimum dose (Dmin) in PTV [Mean: 29.68Gy vs 14.49Gy, p=0.03] for supine than in prone position. Also, the maximum point dose (Dmax) to the mandible was significantly lower in patients treated in supine position [37.0Gy vs 31.31Gy, p=0.01].

Conclusion: We suggest 2iso-HB-WOC technique for delivering CSI with 3DCRT. Also, supine positioning of patients in CSI appears to be dosimetrically advantageous.

Open Access Review Article

Biomarker: A Potential Novel Therapeutic Target for Early Detection of Lung Cancer

Vinit Vaidya, Vedaant Bhandary, Faisal Qureshi, Priyanshi Vishwakarma

Asian Oncology Research Journal, Volume 5, Issue 3, Page 1-7

Cancer is a deadly disease which can affect any part of our body. Many cancers like Lung cancer, Breast cancer are present but, in our article, we mainly focused on Lung Cancer which has a high mortality rate. There are 2 types of Lung cancers mainly NSCLC (non-small cell lung cancer) and SCLC (small cell lung cancer) and although treatments are available, the survival rate is still very low due to the late detection of these cancers. Biomarkers are biological genes which show changes when a tumor formation takes place. Our article provides an overview of Lung cancer, treatments and mainly focuses on potential biomarkers and also suggests some futuristic ideas that can help detect Lung cancer early.

Open Access Review Article

Treatment of Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma: A Comprehensive Review and Indian Perspective

B. Biswas, S. Gupta, N. K. Warrier, T. Patil, S. Patil

Asian Oncology Research Journal, Volume 5, Issue 3, Page 16-40

Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is the eighth most common type of cancer, with more than one-third of patients having metastases when first diagnosed. There is a paradigm shift in metastatic RCC (mRCC) management with the advent of newer therapy options. The development of new innovative diagnostic and therapeutic tools has improved the prognosis of patients with advanced-stage disease. Inclusion of agents targeting the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) pathway (predominantly VEGFR-directed tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs)), immune-checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) and parallel efforts to uncover new targets unveil the underlying biological differences between heterogeneous disease subtypes. Thus, new systemic therapies have become increasingly complex and optimising patient selection and treatment sequence for better patient outcomes has become crucial. This review provides a comprehensive overview of advances in the treatment landscape, emphasising the importance of individualised treatment approaches for specific subgroups of patients and also discusses the Indian perspective on the management of metastatic renal cell carcinoma with real-world case studies.