Asian Oncology Research Journal <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Asian Oncology Research Journal</strong>&nbsp;aims to publish&nbsp;high-quality&nbsp;papers (<a href="/index.php/AORJ/general-guideline-for-authors">Click here for Types of paper</a>) in all areas of&nbsp;‘Cancer, Tumor&nbsp;and&nbsp;Oncology&nbsp;research’. This journal facilitates the research and wishes to publish papers as long as they are technically correct, scientifically motivated. The journal also encourages the submission of useful reports of negative results. This is a quality controlled,&nbsp;OPEN&nbsp;peer-reviewed, open access INTERNATIONAL journal.</p> <p style="text-align: justify;">&nbsp;</p> Asian Oncology Research Journal en-US Asian Oncology Research Journal Thyroid Follicular Carcinoma with Distant Metastasis to the Calvaria <p>A case of thyroid follicular carcinoma with distant metastasis to the calvaria at initial presentation and its management in a resource-constrained environment.&nbsp;</p> <p>A 69-year-old woman who presented with an anterior neck mass, scalp swelling and right eye proptosis and was diagnosed with thyroid follicular cancer with metastasis to the skull and right eye.</p> <p>Thyroid cancer (TC) is the most common endocrine cancer worldwide, accounting for 567,000 cases and 41,071 deaths in 2018. The commonest type of TC is papillary thyroid cancer (75- 85%) followed by follicular thyroid cancer (10- 20%). Although distant metastasis of TC to the lung and bones are common, metastasis to the calvaria is less common and relatively few cases have been reported in the medical literature.</p> <p>Metastasis of thyroid cancer (TC) to the calvaria and by extension to other infrequently reported areas is a relatively rare but possible complication of TC.</p> Kwesi Agyen-Mensah Asante-Bremang Moses Richmond Hagan Bin Alhassan ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-01-15 2022-01-15 1 6 Desmoplastic Small Round Cell Tumor: A Case Report <p>Desmoplastic small round cell tumour is a very rare, highly malignant abdominal neoplasm of mesenchymal origin. Its non-specific symptoms at presentation and poor prognosis with a five year survival rate of 15% despite treatment make it a big challenge to manage. We wish to discuss a case of a young 17-year old male with abdominal pain and a palpable lump which was eventually diagnosed with desmoplastic round cell tumour.</p> Bhuwan Kumar ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-01-15 2022-01-15 7 10 A Rare Case of Oral Field Cancerization Due to Nutritional Deficiency with an Update on Current Concepts <p>Squamous cell carcinomas (SCC) of the oral cavity and the upper aerodigestive tract are mostly associated with tobacco and alcohol consumption. However, a small minority of patients with SCC do not consume tobacco or alcohol. The underlying etiology of head and neck cancer in this patient population remains unclear. The most common etiological factor is related to constant long-term exposure to carcinogens. Head and neck cancers are rarely observed in patients who do not consume tobacco or alcohol. To date, only a few cases of oral cancer caused by nutritional deficiencies have been reported.</p> <p>In this report, we present a case of oral field cancerization in a sixty years old woman with no predisposing factors, except a history of nutritional deficiency and hematological investigations suggestive of iron, vitamin A, and vitamin B12 deficiencies.</p> <p>As India is a developing country with a large population suffering from nutritional deficiencies, randomized controlled trials are required to determine the association between vitamin deficiency and oral malignancies. Further studies are needed to evaluate whether dietary micronutrient supplementation can have an impact on the prevention of carcinogenesis.</p> Arun Panwar Vaishali Keluskar S. Lokesh Kumar M. Sridhar ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-04-21 2022-04-21 16 23 Determining Maximum Recommended Starting Dose of Systemically Administered Biologics in First in Human Clinical Trials <p>Determining Maximum Recommended Starting Dose (MRSD) in first in human (FIH) studies is a crucial milestone in the development path of a new pharmaceutical drug. It is imperative to determine what is the safe starting dose in these trials, as the drug would be introduced for testing in humans for the first time. There are guidelines from United States Food and Drug Administration (US-FDA) and European Medicines Agency (EMEA) that help in determining this dose. Several determination methods for calculating MRSD are in practice, including Minimal Anticipated Biological Effect Level (MABEL), No Observed Adverse Effects Level (NOAEL), and Minimum Effective Dose (MED) approach. This paper elucidates NOAEL and MABEL methods for calculating the starting dose. This paper also discusses the factors that help in determining which method to choose for a particular study.</p> Brian Mark Churchill ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-04-13 2022-04-13 11 15 mRNA Expression of S1PR-1 in DMBA Induced Leukemia in Wistar Rats Treated with Ethanol Extract of Hydrocotyle Verticillata and Laportea Aestuans Leaves <p><strong>Aim:</strong> Leukemia has been linked to mRNA expression of Sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor-1(S1PR-1) and considering multiple reports on the roles of phytochemicals in Hydrocotyle verticillata and Laportea aestuans, this study aims to evaluate the effects of administration of ethanol extracts of the 2 plants in regulation of mRNA expression of S1PR-1 in leukemia induced by 7,12-dimethylbenz(α) anthracene (DMBA) in rats.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> Leukemia was induced by a series of subcutaneous injection of 27% of DMBA except for the normal and DMSO groups at interval of 4 days for two weeks. The ethanol extracts of the 2 plants with a standard drug was administered for 2 weeks and blood specimens collected by cardiac puncture under anesthesia with chloroform, from the respective groups and into an EDTA container after induction and extract treatments and Lymphocytes was then extracted. Total RNA was extracted and reverse transcribed. The cDNA was amplified on My IQ single color RTPCR yielding threshold cycles for the target and the house keeping genes which was used for mRNA expression fold of S1PR-1.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The result shows that S1PR-1 was downregulated in the leukemia induced groups 3 to 9 of rats when compared to group 1 and 2. Conversely, after treatments the downregulated gene was found to be upregulated when given the extracts of H. verticillata, L. aestuans and the standard anti-leukemic drug treated groups. This upregulation was high with the standard drug, then the combined dose of 400mg of both extracts, the 400mg of L. aestuans, 400mg of H. verticillata, while 200mg of each of the extract of H. verticillata and L. aestuans was upregulated in the same manner.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> This outcome of the present study has shown that the plant extracts upregulated the mRNA expression of S1PR1 in a leukemic rat hence can be used as an adjunct in leukemia treatment.</p> Odo, Christopher Emeka Uwakwe Augustine A. Ogunka-Nnoka Charity ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-06-01 2022-06-01 24 33