Main Article Content
Heavy metals are divided according to their need for different organisms. Risks of heavy metal contamination in Soil-Pant System through the application of copper (Cu), iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), and zinc (Zn) are essential to plants, animals and humans and Selenium (Se) are essential only to animals and humans, while chromium (Cr) and nickel (Ni) are essential to humans and plants. This study aimed at evaluating the carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic risk of the study area using X-Ray fluoroscopy. The results show that, mean concentration levels of heavy metals in soil from Nasarawa State varied significantly and decreased in order of Cd(524.5) > Zn(502.8) > Ni(462.1) > Cu(314.1) > Pb(295.5) > Cr(278.1) > As(13.5). The Hazard Quotient (HQ) for both adults and children in terms of ingestion, inhalation and dermal contact pathways were all recorded to be lower than unity. The Total Risk and the Hazard Index (HI) were also recorded to be 1.1 x 10-2 and 1.4 x 10-1 respectively, values less than unity. This makes non-carcinogenic effects insignificant to the population and may not poses serious non-carcinogenic effects in the area under study.
Bjuhr J. Trace Metals in Soils Irrigated with Waste Water in a Periurban Area Downstream Hanoi City, Vietnam, Seminar Paper, Institution enf¨ormarkvetenskap, Sveriges Lantbruks Universitet (SLU), Uppsala, Sweden; 2007.
Campbell PGC. Cadmium-A priority pollutant. Environmental Chemistry, 2006; 3(6);387–388.
Castillo-Michel H, Parsons JG, Peralta-Videa JR, Martínez-Martínez A, Dokken KM, Gardea-Torresdey JL. Use of X-ray absorption spectroscopy and biochemical techniques to characterize arsenic uptake and reduction in pea (Pisum sativum) plants. Plant Physiology and Biochemistry. 2007;45(6,7):457-463.
Rodríguez-Serrano M, Romero-Puertas, MC, Pazmiño DM, Testillano OS, Risueño MC, del Río LA, Sandalio LM. Cellular response of pea plants to cadmium toxicity: Cross talk between reactive oxygen species, nitric oxide, and calcium. Plant Physiology. 2009;150(1) 229-243.
Cui YL, Zhu YG, Zhai RH, Chen DY, Huang YZ, Qiu Y.Transfer of metals from soil to vegetables in an area near a smelter in Nanning, China. Environmental International. 2004;30(1):785-791.
Dasgupta PK, Dyke JV, Kirk AB, Jackson, WA. Perchlorate in the United States. Analysis of Relative Source Contributions to the Food Chain. Environmental Science Technology. 2006;40(21):6608–6614.
Garba ZN, Hamza SA, Galadima A. Arsenic Level Speciation in Fresh Water from Karaye, Local Government Area, Kano State, Nigeria. International Journal Chemistry. 2010;20(2):113-117.
USEPA. Risk guidance for super fund human health evaluation manual Part (A). Office of Emergency and Remedial Response. 2010;1.
Department of Environmental Affairs. The frame work for the management of contaminated land, South Africa; 2000.
[Accessed on May, 2018]
Available:http/sawic. Environment. Gov.za/ document.
WHO. Guidelines for Drinking Water Quality. 2011;4(2).