Cancer Implications of Heavy Metals in Swampy Agricultural Soils across Kokona, Nasarawa State, Nigeria

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Usman Rilwan
Auta Abdullahi Abbas
Shu’aib Muhammad


Heavy metals are divided according to their need for different organisms. Risks of heavy metal contamination in Soil-Pant System through the application of copper (Cu), iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), and zinc (Zn) are essential to plants, animals and humans and Selenium (Se) are essential only to animals and humans, while chromium (Cr) and nickel (Ni) are essential to humans and plants. This study aimed at evaluating the carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic risk of the study area using X-Ray fluoroscopy. The results show that, mean concentration levels of heavy metals in soil from Nasarawa State varied significantly and decreased in order of Cd(524.5) > Zn(502.8) > Ni(462.1) > Cu(314.1) > Pb(295.5) > Cr(278.1) > As(13.5). The Hazard Quotient (HQ) for both adults and children in terms of ingestion, inhalation and dermal contact pathways were all recorded to be lower than unity. The Total Risk and the Hazard Index (HI) were also recorded to be 1.1 x 10-2 and 1.4 x 10-1 respectively, values less than unity. This makes non-carcinogenic effects insignificant to the population and may not poses serious non-carcinogenic effects in the area under study.

Heavy metals, cancer, swampy, agricultural, soils, rain-fed rice, risk exposure

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How to Cite
Rilwan, U., Abbas, A. A., & Muhammad, S. (2020). Cancer Implications of Heavy Metals in Swampy Agricultural Soils across Kokona, Nasarawa State, Nigeria. Asian Oncology Research Journal, 3(4), 1-9. Retrieved from
Original Research Article


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