Therapeutic Role of Rosemary Extract against Vepesid Induced Kidney Injury, Proliferation and Apoptosis in Male Rats

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Majd Almakhatreh
Thulfiqar Fawwaz Mutar
Ehab Tousson


Background: Vepesid (Etoposide) is a chemotherapeutic agent used in many types of tumors, but use it in the treatment is limited because of its toxicity in normal organ tissues. However, rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) aqueous extract has shown a protective effect against cancer and another disease.

Aims: In the current study, the protective effects of rosemary on vepesid-induced renal toxicity, injury, proliferation, and apoptosis in male rats were investigated.

Methods: Fifty male Wistar rats were divided into five equal groups: first group, control (G1); second group, rosemary (G2); third group, vepesid (G4); fourth group, co-treated rosemary plus vepesid (G4); fifth group, post-treated vepesid with rosemary (G5).

Results: Serum levels of urea, creatinine, potassium ions, and chloride ions significantly increased; while sodium ions and calcium were significantly decreased in vepesid group when compared with the control group. Besides, the renal histological structure showed marked degeneration and cellular infiltration in renal structure cells. Immunohistochemical investigations in kidney sections showed a moderate positive reaction for Ki67-ir  immunoreactivity; while strong reactions for p53 protein in vepsid group when compared with the control group. In contrast, the treatment rats with rosemary extract in the co-treated and post-treated groups restored normal levels of kidney function parameters; it also improved the histological and immunohistochemical examinations in the kidney section when compared to vepsid group.

Conclusion: Rosemary extract has a renal potential protective effect against vepsid induced renal toxicity and injury.

Rosemary, vepesid, kidney, rats, proliferation, apoptotic

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Almakhatreh, M., Mutar, T. F., & Tousson, E. (2020). Therapeutic Role of Rosemary Extract against Vepesid Induced Kidney Injury, Proliferation and Apoptosis in Male Rats. Asian Oncology Research Journal, 3(3), 16-25. Retrieved from
Original Research Article


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