Effectiveness of Intervention on Awareness and Knowledge of Breast Self-Examination among the Potentially at Risk Population for Breast Cancer
Asian Oncology Research Journal,
Aims: The aim of this study was to estimate the awareness and knowledge of breast cancer and breast self-examination and to estimate the effectiveness of intervention on awareness and knowledge of breast cancer (BC) and breast self-examination (BSE) among the potentially, at risk population for breast cancer.
Study Design: Pre-post study design.
Place and Duration of Study: Private University students of faculty of pharmacy, AIMST University, Kedah state, Malaysia, between September, 2018 and May, 2019.
Methodology: A pre-validated questionnaire containing socio-demographic details along with awareness and knowledge based items regarding breast cancer (BC) and breast self-examination (BSE) was distributed in class room setting after obtaining informed consent from study participants. A well-constructed and validated educational intervention tool (pamphlet) was distributed to all participants after baseline study. The original Blooms cut-off grades were used to categorize the scores. Descriptive statistics for categorical variables; numerical data as median (IQR); McNemar’s test for pre- and post-test differences was computed, P < .05 was considered significant.
Results: The overall response rate of the study population was around 92% (183/200). The awareness score regarding breast cancer was moderate (64%) at baseline. The most identified risk factors was smoking (56%) and symptoms was presence of lumps (61%). Only 65% and 31% were aware that, breast cancer is most common among women and their age-specific incidence rates. About 64% knew it could lead to death and 69% thought early detection improves survival rates. Upon intervention, there was a significant increase (64%→99%, p <.001) in awareness scores and (51%→95%, P <.001) in knowledge scores. At baseline, the knowledge score was poor (51%), only 43% had any knowledge about breast cancer and only 32% were ever taught of how to perform BSE. About 33% knew how often the BSE should be performed and 40% knew the best time for performing BSE. Hardly 24% ever practised BSE though 72% accepted performing BSE is good. However, only 38%, 28% and 22% knew the need of mirror, part of hand and direction of hand movement for performing BSE. The average awareness and knowledge scores showed statistically significant (P < .05) differences between baseline and post intervention studies.
Conclusion: This study results confirm that the study population had a fair awareness and poor knowledge at baseline. Intervention tool such as pamphlet providing clear, precise and required information about breast cancer, its signs, symptoms, risk factors, screening and steps for performing BSE are important to reduce breast cancer mortality. A nation wide reach-out with barrier-specific counseling, community-based interventions and nationwide population driven breast cancer screening are recommended for rural and urban area female population.
- breast self-examination
- breast cancer.
How to Cite
Bray F, Ferlay J, Soerjomataram I, Siegel RL, Torre LA, Jemal A. Global cancer statistics 2018: GLOBOCAN estimates of incidence and mortality worldwide for 36 cancers in 185 countries. CA: A cancer Journal for Clinicians. 2018;68(6):394-424.
Azizah AM, Nor Saleha IT, Noor Hashimah A, Asmah ZA, Mastulu W. Malaysian national cancer registry report 2007–2011. Malaysia cancer statistics, data and figure. Putrajaya: National Cancer Institute, Ministry of Health; 2016.
Taşçı A, Usta YY. Comparison of knowledge and practices of breast self examination (BSE): A pilot study in Turkey. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev: APJCP. 2010; 11(5):1417-20.
Hallal JC. The relationship of health beliefs, health locus of control, and self-concept to the practice of breast self-examination in adult women. Nurs. Res. 1982;31:137-42.
Meijer-van Gelder ME, Look MP, Bolt-de Vries J, Peters HA, Klijn JG, Foekens JA. Clinical relevance of biologic factors in male breast cancer. Breast cancer Research and Treatment. 2001;68(3):249-60.
Memis S, Balkaya NA, Demirkiran F. Knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors of nursing and midwifery students regarding breast self-examination in Turkey. In Oncology Nursing Forum. 2009;36(1): E39-46.
Raosoft. Sample Size Calculator.
Cohen J. Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences. 2nd.edition; 1977.
Gursoy AA, Hindistan S, Nural N, Kahriman I, Yilmaz F, Yigitbas Ç, Erdol H, Bulut HK, Çalik KY, Mumcu HK. Comparison of three educational interventions on breast self-examination knowledge and health beliefs. Asian Pacific Journal Cancer Prevention. 2009; 10(5):765-2.
Jahan S, Al-Saigul AM, Abdelgadir MH. Knowledge, attitudes and practices of breast self-examination among women in Qassim region of Saudi Arabia. Saudi Medical Journal. 2006;27(11):1737-41.
Chioma C, Asuzu S. Knowledge, attitude and practice of self-breast examination among the female students of the University of Ibadan, Nigeria. Pakistan Journal Social Science. 2007;2007;4 Suppl 3:400-2.
Chalmers K, Marles S, Tataryn D, Scott‐Findlay S, Serfas K. Reports of information and support needs of daughters and sisters of women with breast cancer. European Journal of Cancer Care. 2003;12(1):81-90.
Tunin R, Uziely B, Woloski‐Wruble AC. First degree relatives of women with breast cancer: who's providing information and support and who'd they prefer. Psycho‐Oncology. 2010;19(4):423-30.
Kaliyaperumal KI. Guideline for conducting a knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) study. AECS Illumination. 2004;4(1):7-9.
John J. The knowledge, attitude, practice and perceived barriers towards screening for premalignant cervical lesions among women aged 18 years and above, in Songea urban, Ruvuma (Doctoral dissertation, Muhimbili University of Health and Allied Sciences); 2011.
Persson K, Johansson I, EK AC. Breast self‐examination among Swedish women: A survey of frequency, knowledge, and attitudes. Journal of Cancer Education. 1995;10(3):163-7.
Oeffinger KC, Fontham ET, Etzioni R, Herzig A, Michaelson JS, et al. Breast cancer screening for women at average risk: 2015 guideline update from the American Cancer Society. Jama. 2015; 314(15):1599-614.
Siu AL. Screening for breast cancer: US preventive services task force recommendation statement. Annals of Internal Medicine. 2016;164(4):279-96.
Montazeri A, Vahdaninia M, Harirchi I, Harirchi AM, Sajadian A, Khaleghi F, Ebrahimi M, Haghighat S, Jarvandi S. Breast cancer in Iran: Need for greater women awareness of warning signs and effective screening methods. Asia Pacific Family Medicine. 2008;7(1):6.
Karayurt O, Ozmen D, Çetinkaya AÇ. Awareness of breast cancer risk factors and practice of breast self examination among high school students in Turkey. BMC Public Health. 2008;8(1):359.
Budden L. Young women's breast self-examination knowledge and practice. Journal of Community Health Nursing. 1995;12(1):23-32.
Adebamowo CA, Adekunle OO. Case‐controlled study of the epidemiological risk factors for breast cancer in Nigeria. British Journal of Surgery. 1999;86(5):665-708.
Alwan NA, Al Attar WM, Eliessa RA, Madfaic ZA, Tawfeeq FN. Knowledge, attitude and practice regarding breast cancer and breast self-examination among a sample of the educated population in Iraq. EMHJ. 2012;18.
Abdallah AS, El-Gharabawy RM, Al-suhaibany HO. Knowledge, attitude and practice about breast cancer among women in Saudi Arabia. International Archives of Medicine. 2015;248(8):1-13.
Marzouni HZ, Lavasani Z, Shalilian M, Najibpour R, Fakhr MS, Nazarzadeh R, Farshad A, Bahrami N. Women's awareness and attitude toward breast self-examination in dezful city, Iran, 2013. Iranian Red Crescent Medical Journal. 2015;17(1):e17829. DOI:10.5812/ircmj.17829
Millat WA. Knowledge of secondary-school female students on breast cancer and breast self-examination in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. Eastern Mediterranean Health Journal, 2000;6(2-3):338-344.
Alsaif AA. Breast self-examination among Saudi female nursing students in Saudi Arabia. Saudi Medical Journal. 2004; 25(11):1574-8.
Nemenqani DM, Abdelmaqsoud SH, Al-Malki AH, Oraija AA, Al-Otaibi EM. Knowledge, attitude and practice of breast self-examination and breast cancer among female medical students in Taif, Saudi Arabia. Open Journal of Preventive Medicine. 2014;4(02):69-77.
Paul C, Barratt A, Redman S, Cockburn J, Lowe J. Knowledge and perceptions about breast cancer incidence, fatality and risk among Australian women. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health. 1999;23(4):396-400.
Adebamowo CA, Ajayi OO. Breast cancer in Nigeria. West African Journal of Medicine. 2000;19(3):179-91.
Odusanya OO. Breast cancer: Knowledge, attitudes and practices of female schoolteachers in Lagos, Nigeria. The Breast Journal. 2001;7(3):171-205.
Haji‐Mahmoodi M, Montazeri A, Jarvandi S, Ebrahimi M, Haghighat S, Harirchi I. Breast self‐examination: Knowledge, attitudes and practices among female health care workers in Tehran, Iran. The Breast Journal. 2002;8(4):222-5.
Ceber E, Turk M, Ciceklioglu M. The effects of an educational program on knowledge of breast cancer, early detection practices and health beliefs of nurses and midwives. Journal of Clinical Nursing. 2010;19(15‐16):2363-71.
Gurdal SO, Saracoglu GV, Oran ES, Yankol Y, Soybir GR. The effects of educational level on breast cancer awareness: A cross-sectional study in Turkey. Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention. 2012;13(1):295-300.
Dundar PE, Ozmen D, Ozturk B, Haspolat G, Akyıldız F, Çoban S, Çakıroglu G. The knowledge and attitudes of breast self-examination and mammography in a group of women in a rural area in western Turkey. BMC Cancer. 2006;6(1):43.
Irurhe NK, Olowoyeye OA, Arogundade RA, Bassey RB, Onajole AT. Knowledge, attitude and practice of breast self-examination among female medical students in the University of Lagos. The Internet Journal of Health. 2011; 12(1).
Kayode FO, Akande TM, Osagbemi GK. Knowledge, attitude and practice of breast self-examination among female secondary school teachers in Ilorin, Nigeria. European Journal of Scientific Research. 2005;10(3): 42-47.
Uche EE. Cancer awareness among a Nigerian population. Tropical Doctor. 1999; 29(1):39-40.
Gurdal SO, Saracoglu GV, Oran ES, Yankol Y, Soybir GR. The effects of educational level on breast cancer awareness: A cross-sectional study in Turkey. Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention [Internet]. 2012;13(1):295–300.
Dandash KF, Al-Mohaimeed A. Knowledge, attitudes and practices surrounding breast cancer and screening in female teachers of Buraidah, Saudi Arabia. International Journal of Health Sciences. 2007;1:61–71.
Abstract View: 2448 times
PDF Download: 1051 times