Effectiveness of Intervention on Awareness and Knowledge of Breast Self-Examination among the Potentially at Risk Population for Breast Cancer
Asian Oncology Research Journal,
Aims: The aim of this study was to estimate the awareness and knowledge of breast cancer and breast self-examination and to estimate the effectiveness of intervention on awareness and knowledge of breast cancer (BC) and breast self-examination (BSE) among the potentially, at risk population for breast cancer.
Study Design: Pre-post study design.
Place and Duration of Study: Private University students of faculty of pharmacy, AIMST University, Kedah state, Malaysia, between September, 2018 and May, 2019.
Methodology: A pre-validated questionnaire containing socio-demographic details along with awareness and knowledge based items regarding breast cancer (BC) and breast self-examination (BSE) was distributed in class room setting after obtaining informed consent from study participants. A well-constructed and validated educational intervention tool (pamphlet) was distributed to all participants after baseline study. The original Blooms cut-off grades were used to categorize the scores. Descriptive statistics for categorical variables; numerical data as median (IQR); McNemar’s test for pre- and post-test differences was computed, P < .05 was considered significant.
Results: The overall response rate of the study population was around 92% (183/200). The awareness score regarding breast cancer was moderate (64%) at baseline. The most identified risk factors was smoking (56%) and symptoms was presence of lumps (61%). Only 65% and 31% were aware that, breast cancer is most common among women and their age-specific incidence rates. About 64% knew it could lead to death and 69% thought early detection improves survival rates. Upon intervention, there was a significant increase (64%→99%, p <.001) in awareness scores and (51%→95%, P <.001) in knowledge scores. At baseline, the knowledge score was poor (51%), only 43% had any knowledge about breast cancer and only 32% were ever taught of how to perform BSE. About 33% knew how often the BSE should be performed and 40% knew the best time for performing BSE. Hardly 24% ever practised BSE though 72% accepted performing BSE is good. However, only 38%, 28% and 22% knew the need of mirror, part of hand and direction of hand movement for performing BSE. The average awareness and knowledge scores showed statistically significant (P < .05) differences between baseline and post intervention studies.
Conclusion: This study results confirm that the study population had a fair awareness and poor knowledge at baseline. Intervention tool such as pamphlet providing clear, precise and required information about breast cancer, its signs, symptoms, risk factors, screening and steps for performing BSE are important to reduce breast cancer mortality. A nation wide reach-out with barrier-specific counseling, community-based interventions and nationwide population driven breast cancer screening are recommended for rural and urban area female population.
- breast self-examination
- breast cancer.
How to Cite
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