Ameliorative Effects of Spirulina and Chamomile Aqueous Extract against Mice Bearing Ehrlich Solid Tumor Induced Apoptosis
Asian Oncology Research Journal,
Aims: Cancer is caused by an imbalance in the rate of proliferation and apoptosis and the positive effect of anticancer therapy is taken into consideration when its ability to initiate apoptosis in cancer cells. In vivo; several experimental models established in experimental animals besides the Ehrlich solid tumor (EST), derived from the mouse breast adenocarcinoma. This study aims to determine the curative role of spirulina or/ and chamomile to acting effectively in inhibition of Ehrlich cells growth and tumor development, in addition to the therapeutic activity of spirulina and chamomile aqueous extract on Ehrlich tumor in the solid forms induced apoptosis in solid tumor.
Study Design: A total of 80 mice were equally divided into eight groups (Group 1, Control group; Group 2, spirulina group; Group 3, Chamomile group; Group 4, spirulina and chamomile group; Group 5, Ehrlish solid tumor group; Group 6: Mice Ehrlish solid tumor treated orally with spirulina; Group 7, Mice Ehrlish solid tumor treated orally with chamomile; Group 8, Mice Ehrlish solid tumor treated orally with both spirulina and chamomile for 2 weeks).
Results: In the current study; a significant decrease in tumour volume, an decrease in apoptotic P53, Bax and pro apoptotic Caspase 3 expressions and increased in Bcl2 expressions was detected after the treatment of EST with extract of chamomile and spirulina together and spirulina extract only as compared with the tumour volume of EST group. In conclusion, the present study demonstrated that the combination of spirulina and chamomile has a better effect than each of spirulina or chamomile alone against Ehrlich solid tumor in mice.
Conclusion: Ehrlich solid tumor induced apoptosis by increased P53, Bax, Caspase 3 and decrease Bcl2; treatment of Ehrlich solid tumor with combination of spirulina and chamomile improved these alterations in apoptosis markers.
- Ehrlich solid tumor
How to Cite
Medhat D, Hussein J, El-Naggar ME, Attia MF, Anwar M, Latif YA, Booles HF, Morsy S, Farrag AR, Khalil WK, El-Khayat Z. Effect of Au-dextran NPs as anti-tumor agent against EAC and solid tumor in mice by biochemical evaluations and histopathological investigations. Bio-medicine and Pharmacotherapy. 2017;91: 1006-16.
Mutar TF, Gazia MA, Salem SB, Hammed EH, Tousson E. Ehrlich Ascites Carcinoma Bearing Mice as Model of Human Hepatocellular Carcinoma. Asian Journal of Research and Reports in Hepatology. 2019;1-9.
Jemal A, Ward E, Thun MJ. Recent trends in breast cancer incidence rates by age and tumor characteristics among US women. Breast Cancer Research. 2007;9(3):R28.
Tousson E, Hafez E, Zaki S, Gad A. P53, Bcl-2 and CD68 expression in response to amethopterin-induced lung injury and ameliorating role of l-carnitine. Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy. 2014;68(5):631-9.
Tousson E, Zaki ZT, Abu-Shaeir WA, Hassan H. Methotrexate-induced hepatic and renal toxicity: role of L-carnitine in treatment. Biomed Biotechnol. 2014;2(4): 85-92.
Tousson E, Atteya Z, El-Atrash E, Jeweely OI. Abrogation by Ginkgo Byloba leaf extract on hepatic and renal toxicity induced by methotrexate in rats. J Cancer Res Treat. 2014;2(3):44-51.
Tousson E, Bayomy MF, Ahmed AA. Rosemary extract modulates fertility potential, DNA fragmentation, injury, KI67 and P53 alterations induced by etoposide in rat testes. Biomedicine and Pharmacotherapy. 2018;98:769-74.
Tousson E, Hegazy M, Hafez E, Ahmed EA. The effect of L-carnitine on amethopterin-induced toxicity in rat large intestine. J Cancer Res Treat. 2014;2(3): 55-63.
Tousson E, Hafez E, Masoud A, Hassan AA. Abrogation by curcumin on testicular toxicity induced by cisplatin in rats. J Cancer Res Treat. 2014;2(3):64- 8.
Tousson E, Keshta AT, Hussein Y, Fekry RM, Abo-Ghaneima WK. Renal Protective Effect of Ginkgo biloba and L-carnitine Extracts against Pentylenetetrazol Induced Toxicity, Oxidative Stress, Injury and Proliferation Alternation in Epileptic Rats. Annual Research & Review in Biology. 2019;1-3.
Al-Rasheed NM, El-Masry TA, Tousson E, Hassan HM, Al-Ghadeer A. Hepatic protective effect of grape seed proanthocyanidin extract against Gleevec-induced apoptosis, liver Injury and Ki67 alterations in rats. Brazilian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2018;54(2): 17391.
Al-Rasheed NM, El-Masry TA, Tousson E, Hassan HM, Al-Ghadeer A. Protective Potential of Grape Seed Proanthocyandins Extract against Glivec (Imatinib Mesylate) Induced Liver Toxicity and Oxidative Stress in Male Rats. Annual Research & Review in Biology. 2017;20(6):1-9.
Raafat BM, El-Barbary A, Touson E and Aziz S. Di-Mercapto Succinic Acid (DMSA) and vitamin C chelating potency in lead intoxication, regarding oxidative stress and apoptotic related proteins in rabbits. J. Genetic Engin. Biotechnol. 2011;9(2):121-31.
Tousson E, Hafez E, Zaki S, Gad A. The cardioprotective effects of L-carnitine on rat cardiac injury, apoptosis, and oxidative stress caused by amethopterin. Environmental Science and Pollution Research. 2016;23(20):20600-8.
Oyouni AA, Saggu S, Tousson E, Mohan A, Farasani A. Mitochondrial nephrotoxicity induced by tacrolimus (FK-506) and modulatory effects of Bacopa monnieri (Farafakh) of Tabuk Region. Pharmacognosy Research. 2019;11(1):20.
Oyouni AA, Saggu S, Tousson E, Rehman H. Immunosuppressant drug tacrolimus induced mitochondrial nephrotoxicity, modified PCNA and Bcl-2 expression attenuated by Ocimum basilicum L. in CD1 mice. Toxicology Reports. 2018;5:687-94.
El-Keey MM, El Ghonamy MA, Ali TM, Ibrahim WM, Tousson E. Effect of Sulforaphane and Methotrexate combined treatment on Histone Deacetylase Activity in Solid Ehrlich Carcinoma. Journal of Bioscience and Applied Research. 2017; 3(3):62-69.
Aldubayan MA, Elgharabawy RM, Ahmed AS, Tousson E. Antineoplastic activity and curative role of avenanthramides against the growth of ehrlich solid tumors in mice. Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity. 2019;12.
Tousson E, Alm-Eldeen A, El-Moghazy M. p53 and Bcl-2expression in response to boldenone induced liver cells injury. Toxicology and Industrial Health. 2011; 27(8):711-8.
Tousson E, Elgharabawy RM, Elmasry TA. Grape seed proanthocyanidin ameliorates cardiac toxicity induced by boldenone undecylenate through inhibition of NADPH oxidase and reduction in the expression of NOX2 and NOX4. Oxidative medicine and cellular longevity; 2018
El Barbary A, Tousson E, Rafat B, Hessien M, Samy A. Treatment with vitamin C ameliorated the alterations in p53 and Bcl2 caused by lead-induced toxicity. Animal Biology. 2011;61(1):111-25.
Tousson E, El-Moghazy M, El-Atrsh E. The possible effect of diets containing Nigella sativa and Thymus vulgaris on blood parameters and some organs structure in rabbit. Toxicology and Industrial Health. 2011;27(2):107-16.
Tousson E, Beltagy DM, Gazia MA, Al-Behbehani B. Expressions of P53 and CD68 in mouse liver with Schistosoma mansoni infection and the protective role of silymarin. Toxicology and Industrial Health. 2013;29(8):761-70.
Abd Eldaim MA, Tousson E, El Sayed IE, Awd WM. Ameliorative effects of Saussurea lappa root aqueous extract against Ethephon‐induced reproductive toxicity in male rats. Environmental Toxicol. 2019;34(2):150-9.
El-Masry TA, Al-Shaalan NH, Tousson E, El-Morshedy K, Al-Ghadeer A. P53 expression in response to equigan induced testicular injury and oxidative stress in male rat and the possible prophylactic effect of star anise extracts. Annual Research & Review in Biology. 2017; 14(1):1-8. Available:https://doi.org/10.9734/ARRB/2017/34318
Bray F, Ren JS, Masuyer E and Ferlay J. Global estimates of cancer prevalence for 27 sites in the adult population in 2008. Int. J. Cancer. 2013;132:1133-1145.
Siegel R, DeSantis C, Jemal A. 'Colorectal cancer statistics, 2014', CA: A Cancer Journal for Cicians. 2014;64(2):104-117.
Mansour SZ, Anis LM. Possible effect of 5, 6-dimethyl-4 isothiocyanate thieno [2, 3-d] pyrimidine and I or irradiation on Ehrlich carcinoma in mice. J Radical Res Applied Sci. 2010;3:599-618.
Eldaim MA, Tousson E, El Sayed IE, El AE, Elsharkawy HN. Grape seeds proanthocyanidin extract ameliorates Ehrlich solid tumor induced renal tissue and DNA damage in mice. Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy. 2019; 115:108908.
Tousson E, Alghabban AJ, Harga HA. Thyroidectomy induced hepatic toxicity and possible amelioration by Ginkgo biloba leaf extract. Biomedicine & Preventive Nutrition. 2014;4(3):391-7.
Moustafa AH, Ali EM, Moselhey SS, Tousson E, El-Said KS. Effect of coriander on thioacetamide-induced hepatotoxicity in rats. Toxicology and Industrial Health. 2014;30(7):621-9.
El-Moghazy M, Zedan NS, El-Atrsh AM, El-Gogary M, Tousson E. The possible effect of diets containing fish oil (omega-3) on hematological, biochemical and histopathogical alterations of rabbit liver and kidney. Biomedicine & Preventive Nutrition. 2014;4(3):371-7.
Saggu S, Sakeran MI, Zidan N, Tousson E, Mohan A, Rehman H. Ameliorating effect of chicory (Cichorium intybus L.) fruit extract against 4-tert-octylphenol induced liver injury and oxidative stress in male rats. Food and Chemical Toxicology. 2014; 72:138-146.
Elmasry TA, Al-Shaalan NH, Tousson E, El-Morshedy K, Al-Ghadeer A. Star anise extracts modulation of reproductive parameters, fertility potential and DNA fragmentation induced by growth promoter Equigan in rat testes. Brazilian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2018; 54(1).
Basuony M, Hafez E, Tousson E, Massoud A, Elsomkhraty S, Eldakamawy S. Beneficial role of Panax ginseng root aqueous extract against Cisplatin induced blood toxicity in rats. Am J Biol Chem. 2015;3(1):1-7.
Bolkiny Y, Tousson E, El-Atrsh A, Akela M, Farg E. Costus Root Extract Alleviates Blood Biochemical Derangements of Experimentally-Induced Hypo-and Hyperthyroidism in Mice. Annual Research & Review in Biology. 2019;31(5):1-0.
Siva Kiran RR, Madhu GM, Satyanarayana SV. Spirulina in combating Protein Energy Malnutrition (PEM) and Protein Energy Wasting (PEW) - A review. Journal of Nutrition Research. 2015;3(1):62–79.
Salama AF, Abdel-Hamid NM, El-Sheekh M, Tosson E, Gabr AM. Spirulina platensis microalgae protects against diethyl nitrosamine carcinogenic effect on female albino rats. Alexandria Journal of Veterinary Sciences. 2017; 53(1):167-79.
Deng R, Chow TJ. Hypolipidemic, antioxidant, and antiinﬂammatory activities of microalgae spirulina, Cardiovasc. Ther. 2010;28. Available:http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j. 1755-5922.2010.00200.x.
Kornhauser A, Wamer W, Giles A Jr. Protective effects of beta-carotene against psoralen phototoxicity: Relevance to protection against carcinogenesis. Antimutagenesis and Anticarcinogenesis Mechanisms, edited by D. M. Shankel, P.E. Hartman, T. Kado Plenum Press.
Ziegler RG. A review of epidemiologic evidence that carotenoids reduce the risk of cancer." Journal of Nutrition. 1986;119: 116-122.
Palan PR, Mikhail MS, Basu J, Romney SL. BCarotene levels in exfoliated cervicovaginal epithelial cells in cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and cervical cancer. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology. 1992;167:1899-1903.
Hansel R, Sticher O. Pharmakognosie, Phytopharmazie; Springer-Verlag: Heidelberg, Germany; 2002.
Tyler VE. The honest herbal, 3rd ed.; George F., Ed.; Stickley Co.: Philadelphia; 1993.
Srivastava JK, Gupta S. Antiproliferative and apoptotic effects of chamomile extract in various human cancer cells. J Agric Food Chem. 2007;55:9470-8.
Barakat W, Elshazly SM, Mahmoud AA. Spirulina platensis lacks antitumor effect against solid Ehrlich carcinoma in female mice. Advances in pharmacological sciences; 2015.
Ibrahim W, Tousson E, El-Masry T, Arafa N, Akela M. The effect of folic acid as an antioxidant on the hypothalamic monoamines in experimentally induced hypothyroid rat. Toxicology and Industrial Health. 2012;28(3):253-61.
Ibrahim W, Tousson E, Ali EM, Mansour MA. Folic acid alleviates oxidative stress and hyperhomocysteinemia involved in testicular dysfunction of hypothyroid rats. General and Comparative Endocrinology. 2011;174(2):143-9.
Tousson E. Histopathological alterations after a growth promoter boldenone injection in rabbits. Toxicology and Industrial Health. 2016;32(2):299-305.
Abou-Easa K, El-Magd MA, Tousson E, Hassanin A, Shukry M, Salama M. Pineal gland plays a role in gonadal development after eyelids separation in puppies. International Journal of Morphology. 2015; 33(1).
Hafez E, Masoud A, Barnous M, Tousson E. Apoptotic marker alternations in the spleen of experimentally hyperthyroid and hypothyroid rat. Journal of Bioscience and Applied Research. 2015;1(5):234-42.
Park EJ, Pezzuto J. Botanicals in cancer chemoprevention. Cancer Metastasis Rev. 2002;21:31-255.
Hafez E, Afaf El-Atrash A, El Basuoney H, Tousson E. Protective role of silymarin against anticancer drug Glivec-induced testicular damage in adult male rats. Advanced Trends in Basic and Applied Science. 2017;1(2):128-134.
Bayomy MF, Tousson E, Ahmed AA. Protective role of rosemary against anticancer drug Etoposide-induced testicular toxicity and oxidative stress in rats. Journal of Advanced Trends in Basic and Applied Science. 2017;1(2):1-5
Srivastava JK, Shankar E, Gupta S. Chamomile: A herbal medicine of the past with a bright future. Molecular medicine reports. 2010;3(6):895-901.
Lopez-Lazaro M. Flavonoids as anticancer agents: Structure–activity relationship study. Curr. Med. Chem. Anticancer Agents. 2002;2:691-714.
Carnat A, Carnat AP, Fraisse D, Ricoux L, Lamaison JL. The aromatic and polyphenolic composition of Roman camomile tea. Fitoterapia. 2004;75:32–38.
Kandaswami C, Lee LT, Lee PP, Hwang JJ, Ke FC, Huang YT, Lee MT. The antitumor activities of flavonoids. In-Vivo. 2005;19:895-909.
Hosseini S, Shahbazizadeh S, Khosravi-Darani K, Mozafari M. Spirulina paltensis: food and function, Curr. Nutr. Food Sci. 2013;9:(189-193).
Hwang JH, Lee IT, Jeng KC, Wang MF, et al. Spirulina prevents memory dysfunction, reduces oxidative stress damage and aug- ments antioxidant activity in senescence-accelerated mice, J Nutr Sci Vitaminol. (Tokyo). 2011;57:186–191.
Koníčková R, Vaňková K, Vaníková J, et al. Eﬀects of blue-green alga Spirulina platensis, a natural source of bilirubin-like tetrapyrrolic compounds, Ann. Hepatol. 2014;13: 273–283.
Osman AE, Ahmed MS, El-Din Khayyal MT, El-Merzabani MM. Hyperthermic potentiation of cisplatin cytotoxicity on solid Ehrlich carci- noma, Tumori.1993;79:268–272.
Vaupel P, Mayer A. Hypoxia in tumors: pathogenesis-related classification, characterization of hypoxia subtypes, and associated biological and clinical implications. In Oxygen Transport to Tissue. Springer, New York, NY. 2014;36: 19-24.
Yogianti F, Kunisada M, Nakano E, et al. Inhibitory effects of dietary Spirulina platensis on UVB-induced skin inflammatory responses and carcinogenesis. Journal of Investigative Dermatology. 2014;134:2610–2619.
Ouhtit A, Ismail MF, Othman A, et al, Chemoprevention of rat mammary carcinogenesis by spirulina. The American Journal of Pathology. 2014;184:296–303.
Ismail MF, Ali DA, Fernando A, et al. Chemoprevention of rat liver toxicity and carcinogenesis by Spirulina. International Journal of Biological Sciences. 2009;5: 377–387.
Schwartz J, Shklar G. Regression of experimental hamster cancer by beta carotene and algae extracts. Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery. 1987;45(6): 510–515.
Chamorro G, Pérez-Albiter M, Serrano-García N, Mares-Sámano JJ, Rojas P. Spirulina maxima pretreatment partially protects against 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1, 2, 3, 6-tetrahydropyridine neurotoxicity. Nutritional neuroscience. 2006;9(5-6):207-12.
Campisi J. Suppressing cancer: the importance of being senescent. Science. 2005;309(5736):886-7.
Oncel S, Cosgul T, Calli A, Calli C, Pinar E. Evaluation of p53, p63, p21, p27, ki-67 in paranasal sinus squamous cell carcinoma and inverted papilloma. Indian Journal of Otolaryngology and Head & Neck Surgery. 2011;63(2):172.
Glantz LA, Gilmore JH, Lieberman JA, Jarskog LF. Apoptotic mechanisms and the synaptic pathology of schizophrenia. Schizophrenia research. 2006;81(1):47-63.
Roy KR, Arunasree KM, Reddy NP, Dheeraj B, Reddy GV, Reddanna P. Alteration of mitochondrial membrane potential by Spirulina platensis C-phyco- cyanin induces apoptosis in the doxorubicinresistant human hepatocellular-carci- noma cell line HepG2, Biotechnol. Appl. Biochem. 2007;47:159.
De Heer P, De Bruin EC, Klein-Kranenbarg E, Aalbers RI, Marijnen CA, Putter H, De Bont HJ, Nagelkerke JF, van Krieken JH, Verspaget HW, van De Velde CJ. Caspase-3 activity predicts local recurrence in rectal cancer. Clinical Cancer Research. 2007;13(19):5810-5.
Khoury T, Arshad A, Bogner P, Ramnath N, Zhang S, Chandrasekhar R, Wilding G, Alrawi S, Tan D. Apoptosis-related (survivin, Bcl-2), tumor suppressor gene (p53), proliferation (Ki-67), and non-receptor tyrosine kinase (Src) markers expression and correlation with clinicopathologic variables in 60 thymic neoplasms. Chest. 2009;136(1): 220-8.
Migliarini B, Campisi AM, Maradonna F, Truzzi C, Annibaldi A, Scarponi G, Carnevali O. Effects of cadmium exposure on testis apoptosis in the marine teleost Gobius niger. General and comparative endocrinology. 2005;142(1-2):241-7.
Makin G, Dive C. Apoptosis and cancer chemotherapy. Trends in cell biology. 2001;11:S22-6.
Baojiang GY. Inhibition activity of spirulina platensis proteins photo-immobilization biomaterial on proliferation of cancer cells [J]. Journal of Biomedical Engineering. 2002;1.
Liu XM, Zhang HQ. Effect of polysaccharide from Spirulina platensis on hematopoietic cells proliferation, apoptosis and Bcl-2 expression in mice bearing tumor treated with chemotherapy. Yao xue xue bao= Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica. 2002;37(8):616-20.
Abstract View: 1625 times
PDF Download: 1075 times